Tight Junction Regulation
TJ Proteins
TJ Function
TJ Environment
TJ Regulation
TJ Channel
TER vs Flux
TJ Maintenance
Regulations of tight junctions are broadly used here to include regulations of barrier function (TER and flux), polarity function (apical-basal), as well as localization of tight junction proteins (occludin, ZO-1).  Clearly, the field needs to take an active role in establishing a consensus in defining the various functions of tight junctions.
Fast  (seconds to minutes):

- Extracellular domains of integral membrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, receptors, channels
- Calcium depletion (EDTA)
- Paprika
- Cayenne pepper
- Bay leaf

Medium (minutes to few hours):

- Neurotransmitters (glutamate, NMDA, & AMPA, dopamine)
- ATP depletion (dinitrophenol, antimycin A, deoxy-glucose)
- Protease (trypsin)
- Protease inhibitors (leupeptin)
- Lipids (sphingosines, alkylglycosides, oxidized lipids, ether lipids)

Slow (few hours to tens of hours):

- Aspirin
- Cytochalasin B & D
- Brefeldin A
- Latruculin
- Interleukin-1beta

Very Slow (days):

- Serotonin
- TGF (Transforming Growth Factor beta)
- Cytokines (Interferon gamma, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha)
- Insulin & Insulin-like growth factor
- Caffeine
- Epinephrine
- Mineralcorticoids & Glucocorticoids
- Peptides corresponding to occludin second extracellular domain

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